Selective Breeding or Artificial Selection


Artificial Selection is a form of selection in which humans actively choose which traits should be passed onto offspring. Humans have used selective breeding long before Darwin's Postulates and the discovery of genetics. Farmers chose cattle with beneficial traits such as larger size or producing more milk, and made them breed; and although they may have known nothing about genes, they knew that the beneficial traits could be heritable. The farmers selected for certain traits in their cattle and probably noticed that the offspring were becoming more and more productive with each generation. Scientists study these traits and spend a lot of time calculating how heritable these traits can be. The more these traits are expressed in the offspring (i.e. size, milk production, etc), the more heritable these traits are said to be. Hunting is also a form of artificial selection, with the genes that humans "want" (i.e. - the biggest buck with the most points, the largest fish, etc.) being removed from the gene pool, allowing the less "wanted" genes to pass on to the next generation by increasing their odds of mating when compared to the hunted specimens.

Here is an interesting article that outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages of artificial selection.

Here is a website from Berkeley outlining artificial selection.

Here's an example of selective breeding on a farm.

Animals:

Cats

If one were to produce a type of hypoallergenic cat, how would one go about doing it? (Article) Start with a population of short-haired cats that have been tested with humans who are allergic to cats. Breed the cats that cause the least allergic reaction. Test the offspring with allergic humans and select the ones with the least effect. Continue choosing the least allergy-generating cats to reproduce. The traits that provoke allergies are weeded out, but the resulting breed will probably not be entirely hypoallergenic. Animals without fur are said to have fewer of the allergens that irritate and cause symptoms, however they aren't completely hypoallergenic.


Breeders have also used selective breeding to create exotic pets. In this case, the breeder crossbreeds two different species-- such as the serval and the domestic cat to produce the Savannah cat. Like many other hybrids, many offspring are sterile. Most infertility in hybrids is caused by a difference in chromosome count between the species. F1 generation Savannahs are very difficult to produce due to differences in gestation time and picky mate selection in servals. This can lead to obvious problems that result in aborted pregnancies or kittens born prematurely. Many of the Savannah cats are back-crosses of the F1 to a serval, which produces a cat that is a higher percentage serval. The Savannahs are not all infertile, depending on their genetics, but male Savannahs are infertile until the F5 generation, while females are fertile from the F1 generation. This link shows what a Savannah cat is, along with other interesting hybrid pets!

Dogs

As purebred dogs are becoming increasingly inbred, problems are arising from a genetic standpoint. The frequency of being homozygous for rare recessive disorders increases when inbreeding occurs, potentially causing severe health problems down the road.

Most, if not all, breeds of household dogs that exist today are due to artificial/selective breeding. The original bloodline is from wolf-like animals that were domesticated and bred for more docile traits. Now we have everything from mastiffs to poodles. Here is a link explaining this selection in greater detail.

A notable fact about the speciation of dogs and wolves is that what we know as the domestic dog is actually a subspecies of the Gray wolf, Canis lupus; domestic dogs are known as Canis lupus familiarus.

This study was begun in 1959 by a Soviet geneticist, who sought to replicate domestication practices in a species not domesticated before, the silver fox. Tameness was the only trait selected for throughout the study, which scientists still continue to do today. Now, the physical characteristics of the foxes have changed from the originals, ranging from a difference in coat color, to floppy ears, to eagerness to please the humans they interact with.

This article about how dogs evolved from a common ancestor with wolves suggests that old wolves evolved into domestication as they started living closer to humans. Dr. Ya-Ping Zhang suggests that wolves started scavenging from carcasses left by human populations. The more aggressive wolves would be killed while the more mellow wolves would be allowed to eat from the carcasses and stay in close proximity to humans. Domesticated dogs evolved their genes in many different directions than normal wolves, and many of these genes are active in dogs' brain. Many of these genes that underwent selection in domesticated dogs also underwent selection in human brains too.

Another interesting and relevant fact about artificial selection: dogs have the widest range of phenotype of any mammal! The structure of the breed can help solve problems in regards to disease heterogeneity in humans.

Here is a link to a BBC documentary that explains the issues with inbreeding dogs and the medical/health impact of selective breeding. These negative effects have spurred a movement for hybrid dogs recently as genetic diversity increases by combining two breeds of dogs.

This picture gives a visual representation of the evolution of our beloved bulldog.



The skull on the right is from 1800 and the left is from 1904, and represents the breed as we know it today.


The New York Times even wrote an article about our beloved mascot's genetic transformation: "It is the most extreme example of genetic manipulation in the dog-breeding world that results in congenital and hereditary problems."

Pug dogs that have been bred for certain traits often develop breathing problems. Is it right for breeders to continue this just for their own incomes? Watch this video to get some insight.

NOTE: Not just pugs have problems due to breeding. Many pure breeds have problems. For example Labradors experience hip dysplasia, great danes have heart problems, etc. Many big dog breeds suffer from arthritis. Labradors often have problems with their hips.

Here is a great Nature news article on the effect of human selection on the dog genome and its future implications.

Dogs have a sliding genome composed of many, many transposable elements.

Here is an article going into further detail about the genetics of dog breeding.

Here is extra evidence of artificial selection in dogs.


Farm Animals

There has been artificial selection pressure on animals due to human intervention, first dating back to the use of castration to control the behavior of aggressive males. Additionally, in the early stages and in some species continuing today, humans routinely chose to kill and eat animals whose behavior was difficult to control before they had a chance to reproduce. For the time people have controlled domestic animals, the selective pressure has been related to the animals' behavior. At first, more tractable behavior occurred more as a consequence of human attempts to control behavior, not as planned, conscious acts to produce tamer, more tractable animals (Belyaev 1978). This unintentional selection also encouraged social behavior so that individuals that stayed together in herds and flocks were favored, as would individuals that exhibited tolerance to people. Other techniques employed since early stages of domestication, such as cross-fostering of young and early weaning, also affected maternal behavior of livestock. Domestic hens are known to be more likely to accept chicks hatched from eggs of other species than are wild birds (Lorenz 1965).

Farmers continue to employ artificial selection. They breed animals in order to improve productivity and thus profits. For example, dairy farmers will look for the cows that can produce the most milk and only breed those cows. These cows then pass their genes that contribute to higher milk production onto their offspring, increasing productivity each generation for the farmers.

Animation explaining selective breeding by farmers.

Here is a Scholarly Article that focuses on showing the complexity of livestock domestication.


Fish

Due to fishing regulations dictating that only the largest fish may be kept, humans are artificially selecting fish to produce smaller size fish. (Article) Originally there was great variation in fish size. As the population was fished, only large fish were removed, while smaller fish remained. Small fish reproduce and produce more small fish. Population will continue to decrease in size so long as the largest fish are harvested. "Slot limits" are often imposed preventing the harvest of fish over a certain size to counter this effect.


Food

  • Example: the wild mustard crop was artificially selected to cultivate many different popular crops.
  • Here is another example that takes place right here on UGA's campus. It looks at bees as pollinators, as well as the reproductive success of apple orchards, blue berries, cantaloupe, cucumber, squash, watermelon, and more.
  • Humans have been using agriculture and cross pollinating to manipulate the genomes of different plant species, especially wheat, whose chromosomal number increased as agriculture progressed. This kind of manipulation is responsible for foods like seedless watermelons and other seedless fruit. (for example: a banana is triploid, having 2 sets of chromosomes from one parent and 1 set of chromosomes from the other parent, these triploids don't really produce egg/sperm with balanced chromosomes so a seed set is rare thus leading to a banana with no seeds).
  • The artificial breeding of crops over many centuries has led to humans using only a few strains of each of the major crops, such as corn, worldwide. This has raised concerns because if an epidemic passed through a certain strain or group of strains for one of mankind's major crops, such as ice or corn, it could destroy a huge portion of the world's food supply. As a result, many scientists stress the usage of a variety of crop species and the cultivation and preservation of the closest living relative to our food crops' ancestor.
  • Artificial selection on peaches. video
  • Artificial Selection on bananas.


Examples of Artificial Selection from Class

Tomatoes were bred from the size of blueberries to the modern size.

Maize was bred from an unfamiliar tall grass-like plant called Teosinte. Larger and fuller kernels were selected for in order to allow the crop to be a more effective food source.

Picture Website

The Evolution of Corn

Brassica olercea can be bred into broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, collard greens, and more.


GMOs



-GMOs are genetically modified organisms that are engineered to contain foreign DNA that the organism could not obtain in traditional breeding, usually to introduce a beneficial trait. For example, some GMO plants are artificially selected to produce its own insecticide, so that the yield of crops is bigger and more beneficial to the farmers. Some examples of crops that have been genetically modified are:

  • Corn - insect resistance
  • Soybeans - herbicide tolerance
  • Rice - vitamin enrichment (beta-carotene aka vitamin A)
  • Potatoes - virus resistance
The Flavr Savr Tomato: The Flavr Savr tomato was the first genetically engineered food product to be released to the market. The goal of the Flavr Savr genetic alterations was to slow the ripening process, thus preventing the tomato from becoming soft, while still retaining its natural color and flavor. However, despite the tomato possessing these characteristics it was a huge failure. The tomato that was selected to experiment on was originally of inferior taste and flavor. The GMO tomato that was created was simply a more durable form of a terrible tomato.

-GMOs have also shown great potential for medicinal uses and other applications through the modification of microbes. These were the first organisms to be genetically modified in a laboratory setting due to their relatively simplistic genomes. Some uses include:

Culture of pure human proteins

Large scale insulin production for diabetics

Biofuel production

Hemophilia treatments

Production of HGH

Interesting video telling how to identify GMO's.


Breeder's Equation

In class, we learned about the breeder's equation:

R= h^2*S

In the equation, 'R' is the response, or the average difference between a parent generation and the offspring generation, 'h^2' is narrow sense heritability, and 'S' is selection, which is the average difference between the parent generation and individuals selected to breed.

Breeder's Equation asks, "If the environment selects for a heritable trait, how will the population respond (Wares 2013)?" Thus, the breeder's equation calculates the change in alleles between generations. The breeder's equation has been used innately for longer than the equation was created. Breeders have always selected and bred animals or crops that possessed favorable traits.

Broad Sense Heritability (H^2) includes all types of genetic variance while Narrow Sense heritability only considers additive genetic variance.

Some basic information through Duke University about the Breeder's Equation.

Here's an interactive video from Duke University that explains the Breeder's Equation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y24OuELiih0


Artificial Selection in Plant Breeding

The full article from Science Daily is available here

  • Desired genotypes and phenotypes of various plant species can be achieved through the purposeful manipulation of breeding.

  • This manipulation can include controlled pollination or genetic engineering (or both) followed by artificial selection of progeny.

Many agencies believe that breeding new crops is essential to ensuring food security and developing plants more suitable to given environments.

  • Classical plant breeding uses deliberate plant interbreeding to produce new crop varieties with desirable properties.

  • Allows for the introduction of traits and/or genes from one variety or line into a new genetic background.

  • Progeny would then be crossed with the high yielding parent to ensure that the progeny were most like the high yielding parent (backcrossing).

Plants can also be crossed with themselves to produce inbred varieties.

G. Ledyard Stebbins

G. Ledyard Stebbins

Disadvantages of Artificial Selection

Artificial selection can create organisms that are dangerous to the population. For example, killer bees, also known as Africanized honey bees, were bred to produce more honey, but have killed a couple of people due to the unforeseen trait of increased aggressiveness being passed on. In some cases, like the banana, artificial selection has led to sterility. The author of this article argues against the ability to selectively breed and artificially select.

Artificial selection also removes variation in a population (Nature of Life).

  • Can create new mutations.
  • Can perpetuate harmful mutations.
  • Very expensive.
  • Can cause harm to the animals that are being bred such as a shorter life span.


Saving Coral Reefs through Selective Selection

This article describes a new approach to save coral reefs through selectively breeding corals which are more resistant to acidity and warmer temperatures. This approach is controversial because it is taking a serious issue and creating a temporary fix. Solutions should be sought in terms of lowering CO2 levels and restoring the oceans to their prior state. On the other hand, these types of changes may be unstoppable and thus having backup solutions such as selective breeding of corals will prove useful in retaining some level of the original community structure.


Comments

yosanw
Sep 19, 2013

how does this relate to H^2, broad sense heritability?

lcaplan
Sep 30, 2013

Under the "Dog" section at the top in the first paragraph, don't the number of heritable diseases increase do to a higher chance of expressing homozygous recessive alleles (that lead to expression of diseases) in the offspring as opposed to more mutations due to inbreeding?

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in alphabetical order... frameshift before gene flowjlri228jlri2282013-10-21 01:31:42+00:002013-10-21 01:31:42updated117allie633allie6332013-10-20 21:27:10+00:002013-10-20 21:27:10updated116achenachen2013-10-20 06:18:02+00:002013-10-20 06:18:02updated115Changed formating on each of the list headingswtownewtowne2013-10-20 04:46:35+00:002013-10-20 04:46:35updated114deerandeeran2013-10-20 04:36:20+00:002013-10-20 04:36:20updated113bhinton1bhinton12013-10-19 23:15:35+00:002013-10-19 23:15:35updated112ddphanddphan2013-10-19 19:25:15+00:002013-10-19 19:25:15updated111Added Linkddphanddphan2013-10-17 14:52:47+00:002013-10-17 14:52:47updated110edit 2: put "other random pages" section in alphabetical order jlri228jlri2282013-10-13 18:37:21+00:002013-10-13 18:37:21updated109jlri228jlri2282013-10-13 18:32:34+00:002013-10-13 18:32:34updated108first edit: put new pages in alphabetical orderjlri228jlri2282013-10-13 18:27:45+00:002013-10-13 18:27:45updated107bhinton1bhinton12013-10-13 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Linkddphanddphan2013-10-03 15:15:29+00:002013-10-03 15:15:29updated93pjung24pjung242013-10-02 23:29:01+00:002013-10-02 23:29:01updated92formatting changesjlri228jlri2282013-09-30 01:12:07+00:002013-09-30 01:12:07updated91For my second post i added the newly created page to the Wiki pages section jlri228jlri2282013-09-30 01:01:23+00:002013-09-30 01:01:23updated90bhinton1bhinton12013-09-29 02:25:22+00:002013-09-29 02:25:22updated89bhinton1bhinton12013-09-29 02:20:01+00:002013-09-29 02:20:01updated88fgkatzfgkatz2013-09-27 15:34:25+00:002013-09-27 15:34:25updated87alphebetized the listtrostelstrostels2013-09-26 23:38:31+00:002013-09-26 23:38:31updated86delete unnecessary linkskjanekjane2013-09-26 21:57:19+00:002013-09-26 21:57:19updated85kjanekjane2013-09-26 21:43:56+00:002013-09-26 21:43:56updated84kjanekjane2013-09-26 21:39:39+00:002013-09-26 21:39:39updated83moved epistasis linkkjanekjane2013-09-26 21:39:11+00:002013-09-26 21:39:11updated82Made a link to the new Inbreeding 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linkginasanginasan2013-09-17 03:56:06+00:002013-09-17 03:56:06updated56ginasanginasan2013-09-15 18:14:39+00:002013-09-15 18:14:39updated55added a linkginasanginasan2013-09-15 16:54:07+00:002013-09-15 16:54:07updated54dmdauerdmdauer2013-09-15 15:04:59+00:002013-09-15 15:04:59updated53added linkginasanginasan2013-09-14 22:06:05+00:002013-09-14 22:06:05updated52bjenk07bjenk072013-09-14 01:50:26+00:002013-09-14 01:50:26updated51naa92naa922013-09-14 01:12:59+00:002013-09-14 01:12:59updated50Added Linksddphanddphan2013-09-12 15:18:40+00:002013-09-12 15:18:40updated49Added linksddphanddphan2013-09-10 15:12:39+00:002013-09-10 15:12:39updated48fgkatzfgkatz2013-09-09 16:49:54+00:002013-09-09 16:49:54updated47najjar22najjar222013-09-09 13:30:38+00:002013-09-09 13:30:38updated46Linked newly created page on epigenetics to wiki pages master page jlri228jlri2282013-09-09 03:51:39+00:002013-09-09 03:51:39updated45added 'Evolutionary Response' page linktrostelstrostels2013-09-09 01:48:26+00:002013-09-09 01:48:26updated44bhinton1bhinton12013-09-08 22:30:51+00:002013-09-08 22:30:51updated43bhinton1bhinton12013-09-08 22:30:03+00:002013-09-08 22:30:03updated42added another linkginasanginasan2013-09-08 16:15:37+00:002013-09-08 16:15:37updated41added 3 linksginasanginasan2013-09-08 16:11:26+00:002013-09-08 16:11:26updated40achenachen2013-09-06 21:27:24+00:002013-09-06 21:27:24updated39Relinked genetic drift pagepjung24pjung242013-09-06 20:34:45+00:002013-09-06 20:34:45updated38baek92baek922013-09-05 21:11:55+00:002013-09-05 21:11:55updated37allie633allie6332013-09-05 18:27:14+00:002013-09-05 18:27:14updated36allie633allie6332013-09-05 18:24:22+00:002013-09-05 18:24:22updated35allie633allie6332013-09-05 18:23:28+00:002013-09-05 18:23:28updated34allie633allie6332013-09-05 18:11:00+00:002013-09-05 18:11:00updated33allie633allie6332013-09-05 18:04:41+00:002013-09-05 18:04:41updated32allie633allie6332013-09-05 17:55:19+00:002013-09-05 17:55:19updated31allie633allie6332013-09-05 17:53:18+00:002013-09-05 17:53:18updated30allie633allie6332013-09-05 17:47:46+00:002013-09-05 17:47:46updated29organizationddphanddphan2013-09-05 15:30:50+00:002013-09-05 15:30:50updated28Added tag - hotddphanddphan2013-09-05 15:30:47+00:002013-09-05 15:30:47addTag27ddphanddphan2013-09-05 15:25:55+00:002013-09-05 15:25:55updated26adding links to new pagescharleebcharleeb2013-09-05 15:05:14+00:002013-09-05 15:05:14updated25fgkatzfgkatz2013-09-04 17:20:39+00:002013-09-04 17:20:39updated24fgkatzfgkatz2013-09-04 17:19:05+00:002013-09-04 17:19:05updated23fgkatzfgkatz2013-09-04 17:18:11+00:002013-09-04 17:18:11updated22fgkatzfgkatz2013-09-04 17:17:27+00:002013-09-04 17:17:27updated21fgkatzfgkatz2013-09-04 17:16:40+00:002013-09-04 17:16:40updated20bhinton1bhinton12013-09-04 00:43:13+00:002013-09-04 00:43:13updated19daileycodaileyco2013-09-02 22:39:29+00:002013-09-02 22:39:29updated18added links and rearrangedginasanginasan2013-09-02 01:25:38+00:002013-09-02 01:25:38updated17added linkginasanginasan2013-09-02 01:17:36+00:002013-09-02 01:17:36updated16robertprobertp2013-09-01 19:22:15+00:002013-09-01 19:22:15updated15deerandeeran2013-08-31 20:03:41+00:002013-08-31 20:03:41updated14mia2016mia20162013-08-29 19:01:48+00:002013-08-29 19:01:48updated13fgkatzfgkatz2013-08-29 19:01:00+00:002013-08-29 19:01:00updated12fgkatzfgkatz2013-08-29 19:00:00+00:002013-08-29 19:00:00updated11fgkatzfgkatz2013-08-29 18:59:10+00:002013-08-29 18:59:10updated10fgkatzfgkatz2013-08-29 18:57:47+00:002013-08-29 18:57:47updated9fgkatzfgkatz2013-08-29 18:35:32+00:002013-08-29 18:35:32updated8fgkatzfgkatz2013-08-29 18:34:35+00:002013-08-29 18:34:35updated7lgcarterlgcarter2013-08-29 16:08:07+00:002013-08-29 16:08:07updated6Created Pageddphanddphan2013-08-28 01:50:51+00:002013-08-28 01:50:51updated5Added tag - wikiddphanddphan2013-08-28 01:44:43+00:002013-08-28 01:44:43addTag4Added tag - sand boxddphanddphan2013-08-28 01:44:41+00:002013-08-28 01:44:41addTag3Added tag - discussionddphanddphan2013-08-28 01:44:38+00:002013-08-28 01:44:38addTag2First createdddphanddphan2013-08-28 01:43:31+00:002013-08-28 01:43:31created1wiki2013-12-10T01:58:20+00:00groups/evol3000/wiki/54e13FalseWiki Pages/groups/evol3000/wiki/54e13/Wiki_Pages.htmlliishii159 updatesWiki Pages PLEASE READ: Commenting on the wiki pages do not count as participation credit on the wiki. The directions in the syllabus are clear on what does...Falseliishii2013-12-10T01:58:20+00:00added an exampleduggan91duggan912013-11-25 22:18:09+00:002013-11-25 22:18:09updated92souyang1souyang12013-11-25 05:00:00+00:002013-11-25 05:00:00updated91ashleyjwashleyjw2013-11-25 04:17:05+00:002013-11-25 04:17:05updated90mpattmpatt2013-11-25 04:10:42+00:002013-11-25 04:10:42updated89tabedintabedin2013-11-24 23:37:00+00:002013-11-24 23:37:00updated88edit 5: added video to "infecting a host section"jlri228jlri2282013-11-24 22:07:33+00:002013-11-24 22:07:33updated87edit4: made formatting changes and added a video on viral reassortment jlri228jlri2282013-11-24 22:04:13+00:002013-11-24 22:04:13updated86added articlekkogantikkoganti2013-11-24 17:45:38+00:002013-11-24 17:45:38updated85samponssampons2013-11-24 03:53:13+00:002013-11-24 03:53:13updated84deerandeeran2013-11-23 23:02:22+00:002013-11-23 23:02:22updated83tvashitvashi2013-11-23 04:25:36+00:002013-11-23 04:25:36updated82kde04kde042013-11-22 22:40:46+00:002013-11-22 22:40:46updated81kde04kde042013-11-22 22:39:59+00:002013-11-22 22:39:59updated80eyang13eyang132013-11-22 18:03:27+00:002013-11-22 18:03:27updated79eyang13eyang132013-11-22 18:03:11+00:002013-11-22 18:03:11updated78pjung24pjung242013-11-22 17:43:52+00:002013-11-22 17:43:52updated77pjung24pjung242013-11-22 17:38:38+00:002013-11-22 17:38:38updated76gloriaszgloriasz2013-11-22 17:37:21+00:002013-11-22 17:37:21updated75gloriaszgloriasz2013-11-22 17:36:24+00:002013-11-22 17:36:24updated74sydneyb9sydneyb92013-11-21 22:23:02+00:002013-11-21 22:23:02updated73re320re3202013-11-21 19:25:53+00:002013-11-21 19:25:53updated72bpcroftbpcroft2013-11-21 16:58:19+00:002013-11-21 16:58:19updated71bpcroftbpcroft2013-11-21 16:56:30+00:002013-11-21 16:56:30updated70tcard4tcard42013-11-21 15:20:30+00:002013-11-21 15:20:30updated69editing and improingbscurrybscurry2013-11-21 05:35:49+00:002013-11-21 05:35:49updated68kristy7kristy72013-11-21 01:02:26+00:002013-11-21 01:02:26updated67kncox14kncox142013-11-20 20:07:04+00:002013-11-20 20:07:04updated66kncox14kncox142013-11-20 20:05:26+00:002013-11-20 20:05:26updated65kncox14kncox142013-11-20 20:03:10+00:002013-11-20 20:03:10updated64kncox14kncox142013-11-20 19:59:28+00:002013-11-20 19:59:28updated63dmdauerdmdauer2013-11-20 19:58:35+00:002013-11-20 19:58:35updated62added an example of co-evolutionksuf615ksuf6152013-11-20 16:01:14+00:002013-11-20 16:01:14updated61formattingksuf615ksuf6152013-11-20 16:00:32+00:002013-11-20 16:00:32updated60added type of transmissionksuf615ksuf6152013-11-20 16:00:11+00:002013-11-20 16:00:11updated59tbrownetbrowne2013-11-20 03:28:19+00:002013-11-20 03:28:19updated58Nicole Hill- transmission picturenhill19nhill192013-11-19 00:59:47+00:002013-11-19 00:59:47updated57Nicole Hill- viral evolutionnhill19nhill192013-11-19 00:57:38+00:002013-11-19 00:57:38updated56bjenk07bjenk072013-11-18 22:35:01+00:002013-11-18 22:35:01updated55kevinmkkevinmk2013-11-18 22:33:41+00:002013-11-18 22:33:41updated54kevinmkkevinmk2013-11-18 22:26:49+00:002013-11-18 22:26:49updated53kevinmkkevinmk2013-11-18 22:24:06+00:002013-11-18 22:24:06updated52edited paragraph haliejhaliej2013-11-18 15:42:45+00:002013-11-18 15:42:45updated51edited and elongated sentencehaliejhaliej2013-11-18 15:41:32+00:002013-11-18 15:41:32updated50added crucial details on the trade off hypothesis. Took out wrong information. Corrected it.huangdevhuangdev2013-11-18 05:38:51+00:002013-11-18 05:38:51updated49samponssampons2013-11-18 05:31:41+00:002013-11-18 05:31:41updated48bpcroftbpcroft2013-11-18 04:58:03+00:002013-11-18 04:58:03updated47zaki007zaki0072013-11-18 04:55:37+00:002013-11-18 04:55:37updated46ebythekkebythekk2013-11-18 04:16:14+00:002013-11-18 04:16:14updated45jlri228jlri2282013-11-18 04:05:35+00:002013-11-18 04:05:35updated44edit10: more page formatting... moved "types of transmission section"jlri228jlri2282013-11-18 04:05:03+00:002013-11-18 04:05:03updated43kdsouza9kdsouza92013-11-18 04:04:49+00:002013-11-18 04:04:49updated42edit 9: added headers, outlined in blue, rearranged the page in a logical order... reworded some of the content jlri228jlri2282013-11-18 04:01:07+00:002013-11-18 04:01:07updated41ginasanginasan2013-11-18 03:37:17+00:002013-11-18 03:37:17updated40mayabasumayabasu2013-11-18 03:31:22+00:002013-11-18 03:31:22updated39melissa4melissa42013-11-18 03:22:12+00:002013-11-18 03:22:12updated38added extra info about self-containing diseasesbscurrybscurry2013-11-18 03:18:20+00:002013-11-18 03:18:20updated37jsafkojsafko2013-11-18 03:08:38+00:002013-11-18 03:08:38updated36abarton6abarton62013-11-18 01:42:16+00:002013-11-18 01:42:16updated35alomasalomas2013-11-17 23:38:56+00:002013-11-17 23:38:56updated34Contentrbaskin1rbaskin12013-11-17 21:08:09+00:002013-11-17 21:08:09updated33rbaskin1rbaskin12013-11-17 21:07:24+00:002013-11-17 21:07:24updated32Added tag - virulencedmdauerdmdauer2013-11-17 21:06:34+00:002013-11-17 21:06:34addTag31Removed tag - evolutiondmdauerdmdauer2013-11-17 21:06:24+00:002013-11-17 21:06:24removeTag30Added tag - virus evolutiondmdauerdmdauer2013-11-17 21:06:22+00:002013-11-17 21:06:22addTag29dmdauerdmdauer2013-11-17 20:19:02+00:002013-11-17 20:19:02updated28rachel08rachel082013-11-17 18:47:54+00:002013-11-17 18:47:54updated27added a diagramduggan91duggan912013-11-17 14:25:10+00:002013-11-17 14:25:10updated26added cycles of virusduggan91duggan912013-11-17 14:19:13+00:002013-11-17 14:19:13updated25pjung24pjung242013-11-16 20:16:54+00:002013-11-16 20:16:54updated24pjung24pjung242013-11-16 20:15:54+00:002013-11-16 20:15:54updated23pjung24pjung242013-11-16 20:15:13+00:002013-11-16 20:15:13updated22gloriaszgloriasz2013-11-16 14:44:03+00:002013-11-16 14:44:03updated21gloriaszgloriasz2013-11-16 14:43:29+00:002013-11-16 14:43:29updated20gloriaszgloriasz2013-11-16 04:25:39+00:002013-11-16 04:25:39updated19edit3: added the Videos, articles and diagrams hedding... also linked in and explaind two yuotube videosjlri228jlri2282013-11-15 04:16:12+00:002013-11-15 04:16:12updated18kristy7kristy72013-11-14 23:34:04+00:002013-11-14 23:34:04updated17eliminated unnecessary bullet pointddphanddphan2013-11-14 21:28:35+00:002013-11-14 21:28:35updated16Added tag - hotabutchabutch2013-11-14 21:26:06+00:002013-11-14 21:26:06addTag15Added tag - evolutionabutchabutch2013-11-14 21:25:36+00:002013-11-14 21:25:36addTag14abutchabutch2013-11-14 21:01:55+00:002013-11-14 21:01:55updated13abutchabutch2013-11-14 20:58:35+00:002013-11-14 20:58:35updated12abutchabutch2013-11-14 20:47:44+00:002013-11-14 20:47:44updated11alomasalomas2013-11-13 18:34:01+00:002013-11-13 18:34:01updated10mia2016mia20162013-11-13 17:50:07+00:002013-11-13 17:50:07updated9Nicole Hill- hiv viral evolutionnhill19nhill192013-11-13 15:57:54+00:002013-11-13 15:57:54updated8Added an additional point of how growth rate corresponds to virulence within the point on More Virulent Pathogensagdeleoagdeleo2013-11-13 14:45:57+00:002013-11-13 14:45:57updated7kdv11kdv112013-11-13 13:42:02+00:002013-11-13 13:42:02updated6reemap26reemap262013-11-13 00:56:38+00:002013-11-13 00:56:38updated5khall12khall122013-11-13 00:15:24+00:002013-11-13 00:15:24updated4tvashitvashi2013-11-12 22:29:16+00:002013-11-12 22:29:16updated3abutchabutch2013-11-12 19:28:35+00:002013-11-12 19:28:35updated2First createdabutchabutch2013-11-12 19:18:06+00:002013-11-12 19:18:06created1wiki2013-11-25T22:18:09+00:00groups/evol3000/wiki/fbefaFalseViral Evolution/groups/evol3000/wiki/fbefa/Viral_Evolution.htmlduggan9192 updatesViral Evolution Origins of Viruses/ Viral Transmission Virus Origins: There is a lot of debate on this topic, but scientists have developed a few prop...Falseduggan912013-11-25T22:18:09+00:00mayabasumayabasu2013-11-25 03:26:27+00:002013-11-25 03:26:27updated224dmdauerdmdauer2013-11-25 01:08:29+00:002013-11-25 01:08:29updated223added a linkralbrechralbrech2013-11-25 00:06:17+00:002013-11-25 00:06:17updated222enanovenanov2013-11-18 04:30:22+00:002013-11-18 04:30:22updated221kdsouza9kdsouza92013-11-18 04:01:48+00:002013-11-18 04:01:48updated220article about sexual selectiongagirl11bgagirl11b2013-11-18 03:45:26+00:002013-11-18 03:45:26updated219fixed my own typokkogantikkoganti2013-11-18 02:46:23+00:002013-11-18 02:46:23updated218added article on sperm cooperationkkogantikkoganti2013-11-18 02:42:47+00:002013-11-18 02:42:47updated217nikra91nikra912013-11-18 02:39:04+00:002013-11-18 02:39:04updated216added article on sperm cooperationkkogantikkoganti2013-11-18 02:37:49+00:002013-11-18 02:37:49updated215deerandeeran2013-11-18 02:26:46+00:002013-11-18 02:26:46updated214talathitalathi2013-11-18 00:21:32+00:002013-11-18 00:21:32updated213rachel08rachel082013-11-17 18:29:28+00:002013-11-17 18:29:28updated212deerandeeran2013-11-17 04:00:15+00:002013-11-17 04:00:15updated211formattingjlri228jlri2282013-11-15 04:03:58+00:002013-11-15 04:03:58updated210haislerkhaislerk2013-11-14 22:12:35+00:002013-11-14 22:12:35updated209bevinbbevinb2013-11-13 18:55:52+00:002013-11-13 18:55:52updated208added description to the video somebody posted on sexual selection in human dating scenegregbgregb2013-11-11 05:47:02+00:002013-11-11 05:47:02updated207added info to 2duggan91duggan912013-11-11 05:02:26+00:002013-11-11 05:02:26updated206mayabasumayabasu2013-11-11 04:25:58+00:002013-11-11 04:25:58updated205achenachen2013-11-11 02:01:42+00:002013-11-11 02:01:42updated204ashleyjwashleyjw2013-11-11 00:54:06+00:002013-11-11 00:54:06updated203jsafkojsafko2013-11-11 00:13:19+00:002013-11-11 00:13:19updated202khall12khall122013-11-10 00:31:41+00:002013-11-10 00:31:41updated201corrected a typo physical ---> psycologicaladwomackadwomack2013-11-10 00:02:21+00:002013-11-10 00:02:21updated200added to human sexual selection on the psychological parts of sexual selectionedawg16edawg162013-11-09 23:18:24+00:002013-11-09 23:18:24updated199gloriaszgloriasz2013-11-09 14:19:55+00:002013-11-09 14:19:55updated198gloriaszgloriasz2013-11-09 14:19:03+00:002013-11-09 14:19:03updated197gloriaszgloriasz2013-11-07 19:10:16+00:002013-11-07 19:10:16updated196gloriaszgloriasz2013-11-07 19:09:38+00:002013-11-07 19:09:38updated195tvashitvashi2013-11-07 16:00:27+00:002013-11-07 16:00:27updated194mendyhmendyh2013-11-06 17:44:49+00:002013-11-06 17:44:49updated193added nuptual giftsbennywbennyw2013-11-06 03:47:43+00:002013-11-06 03:47:43updated192organization, deleted redundant titleddphanddphan2013-11-05 16:30:14+00:002013-11-05 16:30:14updated191edwards9edwards92013-11-04 04:19:18+00:002013-11-04 04:19:18updated190amanqua3amanqua32013-11-04 03:25:29+00:002013-11-04 03:25:29updated189samponssampons2013-11-04 03:22:57+00:002013-11-04 03:22:57updated188amanqua3amanqua32013-11-04 03:21:23+00:002013-11-04 03:21:23updated187grammarjsafkojsafko2013-11-04 02:48:38+00:002013-11-04 02:48:38updated186added a link about recent evolution has caused women to prefer the Beta males over the Alpha malescolby22colby222013-11-04 02:09:42+00:002013-11-04 02:09:42updated185kde04kde042013-10-31 10:40:40+00:002013-10-31 10:40:40updated184alhill9alhill92013-10-31 06:55:28+00:002013-10-31 06:55:28updated183kncox14kncox142013-10-31 03:32:47+00:002013-10-31 03:32:47updated182manuelabmanuelab2013-10-30 23:39:37+00:002013-10-30 23:39:37updated181bjenk07bjenk072013-10-30 21:48:03+00:002013-10-30 21:48:03updated180bjenk07bjenk072013-10-30 21:41:53+00:002013-10-30 21:41:53updated179bjenk07bjenk072013-10-30 21:38:17+00:002013-10-30 21:38:17updated178kevinmkkevinmk2013-10-30 21:35:56+00:002013-10-30 21:35:56updated177kevinmkkevinmk2013-10-30 21:32:56+00:002013-10-30 21:32:56updated176kevinmkkevinmk2013-10-30 21:32:44+00:002013-10-30 21:32:44updated175mbailey1mbailey12013-10-29 23:36:45+00:002013-10-29 23:36:45updated174mbailey1mbailey12013-10-29 23:29:04+00:002013-10-29 23:29:04updated173sydneyb9sydneyb92013-10-29 22:38:04+00:002013-10-29 22:38:04updated172Nicole Hill- Sexual selection/conflictnhill19nhill192013-10-29 16:07:17+00:002013-10-29 16:07:17updated171tbrownetbrowne2013-10-28 22:49:29+00:002013-10-28 22:49:29updated170tbrownetbrowne2013-10-28 22:47:07+00:002013-10-28 22:47:07updated169tbrownetbrowne2013-10-28 22:42:24+00:002013-10-28 22:42:24updated168tbrownetbrowne2013-10-28 22:38:54+00:002013-10-28 22:38:54updated167tbrownetbrowne2013-10-28 22:38:14+00:002013-10-28 22:38:14updated166tbrownetbrowne2013-10-28 22:37:21+00:002013-10-28 22:37:21updated165charleebcharleeb2013-10-28 18:35:46+00:002013-10-28 18:35:46updated164tgetztgetz2013-10-28 03:29:40+00:002013-10-28 03:29:40updated163tgetztgetz2013-10-28 03:27:34+00:002013-10-28 03:27:34updated162ebythekkebythekk2013-10-28 03:20:30+00:002013-10-28 03:20:30updated161achenachen2013-10-28 02:28:29+00:002013-10-28 02:28:29updated160kkogantikkoganti2013-10-28 01:51:33+00:002013-10-28 01:51:33updated159Edited section about "why is sex bad" and added explanation of two fold costjkabacijkabaci2013-10-27 23:27:29+00:002013-10-27 23:27:29updated158dmdauerdmdauer2013-10-27 23:04:00+00:002013-10-27 23:04:00updated157edit 3: added an outline for the handout jlri228jlri2282013-10-27 22:49:18+00:002013-10-27 22:49:18updated156edit 2: added handout and paragraph about sexual conflict in guppies jlri228jlri2282013-10-27 22:45:59+00:002013-10-27 22:45:59updated155edit 1: removed mislabeled content and kept formatting the same by making a title bluejlri228jlri2282013-10-27 22:16:04+00:002013-10-27 22:16:04updated154abarton6abarton62013-10-27 21:56:19+00:002013-10-27 21:56:19updated153tchishomtchishom2013-10-27 21:46:05+00:002013-10-27 21:46:05updated152rachel08rachel082013-10-27 21:23:35+00:002013-10-27 21:23:35updated151rachel08rachel082013-10-27 21:21:16+00:002013-10-27 21:21:16updated150jsafkojsafko2013-10-27 21:18:23+00:002013-10-27 21:18:23updated149wording of def for human sex selectionjnunez26jnunez262013-10-27 20:53:20+00:002013-10-27 20:53:20updated148dottie94dottie942013-10-27 17:24:40+00:002013-10-27 17:24:40updated147alhill9alhill92013-10-27 14:22:03+00:002013-10-27 14:22:03updated146shree7shree72013-10-26 21:47:37+00:002013-10-26 21:47:37updated145shree7shree72013-10-26 21:38:58+00:002013-10-26 21:38:58updated144chersh93chersh932013-10-26 17:52:15+00:002013-10-26 17:52:15updated143Added tag - hotpjung24pjung242013-10-26 17:49:06+00:002013-10-26 17:49:06addTag142Removed tag - hotpjung24pjung242013-10-26 17:49:04+00:002013-10-26 17:49:04removeTag141pjung24pjung242013-10-26 04:10:18+00:002013-10-26 04:10:18updated140pjung24pjung242013-10-26 04:07:44+00:002013-10-26 04:07:44updated139tvashitvashi2013-10-26 00:37:32+00:002013-10-26 00:37:32updated138kehoekkehoek2013-10-25 19:46:19+00:002013-10-25 19:46:19updated137kristy7kristy72013-10-25 18:49:50+00:002013-10-25 18:49:50updated136grammarspenc90spenc902013-10-25 16:22:38+00:002013-10-25 16:22:38updated135tcard4tcard42013-10-25 01:52:43+00:002013-10-25 01:52:43updated134pgriff10pgriff102013-10-25 01:14:54+00:002013-10-25 01:14:54updated133gloriaszgloriasz2013-10-25 00:41:16+00:002013-10-25 00:41:16updated132achenachen2013-10-24 21:40:38+00:002013-10-24 21:40:38updated131mia2016mia20162013-10-24 20:28:56+00:002013-10-24 20:28:56updated130ekeatingekeating2013-10-24 19:38:28+00:002013-10-24 19:38:28updated129xjwork17xjwork172013-10-24 15:00:00+00:002013-10-24 15:00:00updated128nkamnkam2013-10-23 15:20:45+00:002013-10-23 15:20:45updated127added a link about sexual seleciton and human sexual selectiongagirl11bgagirl11b2013-10-23 14:19:17+00:002013-10-23 14:19:17updated126tcard4tcard42013-10-22 17:19:41+00:002013-10-22 17:19:41updated125rtalleyrtalley2013-10-22 15:26:58+00:002013-10-22 15:26:58updated124rtalleyrtalley2013-10-22 15:25:32+00:002013-10-22 15:25:32updated123haislerkhaislerk2013-10-22 15:15:20+00:002013-10-22 15:15:20updated122haislerkhaislerk2013-10-22 15:14:49+00:002013-10-22 15:14:49updated121haislerkhaislerk2013-10-22 15:12:14+00:002013-10-22 15:12:14updated120haislerkhaislerk2013-10-22 15:09:22+00:002013-10-22 15:09:22updated119mbelyakombelyako2013-10-21 23:34:18+00:002013-10-21 23:34:18updated118Nicole Hill-Sexual section imagenhill19nhill192013-10-21 21:24:41+00:002013-10-21 21:24:41updated117ashleydgashleydg2013-10-21 03:25:30+00:002013-10-21 03:25:30updated116ashleydgashleydg2013-10-21 03:10:58+00:002013-10-21 03:10:58updated115ashleydgashleydg2013-10-21 03:10:24+00:002013-10-21 03:10:24updated114edited articlejsafkojsafko2013-10-21 02:54:30+00:002013-10-21 02:54:30updated113zaki007zaki0072013-10-21 02:11:44+00:002013-10-21 02:11:44updated112edit 5: added clarifying remarks to paragraphjlri228jlri2282013-10-21 01:21:06+00:002013-10-21 01:21:06updated111Edit4:added section on Darkling Beetles jlri228jlri2282013-10-21 01:19:21+00:002013-10-21 01:19:21updated110edit 3:having issues getting the edits to save... maybe someone is undoing them? But I reorder and color coded the pagejlri228jlri2282013-10-21 00:53:54+00:002013-10-21 00:53:54updated109edit 2: changes to page layout and reordered the sections of page... jlri228jlri2282013-10-21 00:51:06+00:002013-10-21 00:51:06updated108proofreadingbscurrybscurry2013-10-21 00:51:06+00:002013-10-21 00:51:06updated107edit 1: major organizational changes to title, flow and order of contentjlri228jlri2282013-10-21 00:43:28+00:002013-10-21 00:43:28updated106mayabasumayabasu2013-10-21 00:38:36+00:002013-10-21 00:38:36updated105Added article about human sexual selectionjkabacijkabaci2013-10-20 23:49:22+00:002013-10-20 23:49:22updated104jkabacijkabaci2013-10-20 23:48:55+00:002013-10-20 23:48:55updated103tgetztgetz2013-10-20 23:21:16+00:002013-10-20 23:21:16updated102typo, article additionkkogantikkoganti2013-10-20 22:10:46+00:002013-10-20 22:10:46updated101rachel08rachel082013-10-20 21:37:20+00:002013-10-20 21:37:20updated100rachel08rachel082013-10-20 21:36:35+00:002013-10-20 21:36:35updated99added budding hydra photohaliejhaliej2013-10-18 18:18:38+00:002013-10-18 18:18:38updated98rewording and grammarhaliejhaliej2013-10-18 18:16:37+00:002013-10-18 18:16:37updated97chersh93chersh932013-10-18 16:19:29+00:002013-10-18 16:19:29updated96gloriaszgloriasz2013-10-18 13:16:41+00:002013-10-18 13:16:41updated95gloriaszgloriasz2013-10-18 13:15:17+00:002013-10-18 13:15:17updated94gloriaszgloriasz2013-10-18 13:15:03+00:002013-10-18 13:15:03updated93tcard4tcard42013-10-18 02:58:18+00:002013-10-18 02:58:18updated92tbrownetbrowne2013-10-17 20:33:56+00:002013-10-17 20:33:56updated91eyang13eyang132013-10-17 01:26:09+00:002013-10-17 01:26:09updated90abutchabutch2013-10-16 21:34:28+00:002013-10-16 21:34:28updated89najjar22najjar222013-10-16 19:24:58+00:002013-10-16 19:24:58updated88mendyhmendyh2013-10-15 01:29:57+00:002013-10-15 01:29:57updated87henkhenk2013-10-14 19:09:35+00:002013-10-14 19:09:35updated86Nicole Hill- Sexual Selection nhill19nhill192013-10-14 15:52:29+00:002013-10-14 15:52:29updated85karlin14karlin142013-10-14 15:33:23+00:002013-10-14 15:33:23updated84add video of praying mantisduggan91duggan912013-10-14 14:42:34+00:002013-10-14 14:42:34updated83tbrownetbrowne2013-10-14 04:53:36+00:002013-10-14 04:53:36updated82I took out bullet points in two sections and made them into paragraphswtownewtowne2013-10-14 03:50:38+00:002013-10-14 03:50:38updated81jnunez26jnunez262013-10-14 03:47:53+00:002013-10-14 03:47:53updated80added explanation of behavioral intersexual selectionjnunez26jnunez262013-10-14 03:42:14+00:002013-10-14 03:42:14updated79enanovenanov2013-10-14 03:34:16+00:002013-10-14 03:34:16updated78glynchglynch2013-10-14 03:08:05+00:002013-10-14 03:08:05updated77mreutermreuter2013-10-13 15:20:02+00:002013-10-13 15:20:02updated76tabedintabedin2013-10-13 01:33:19+00:002013-10-13 01:33:19updated75gloriaszgloriasz2013-10-12 13:06:48+00:002013-10-12 13:06:48updated74gloriaszgloriasz2013-10-12 13:06:23+00:002013-10-12 13:06:23updated73sydneyb9sydneyb92013-10-10 20:12:10+00:002013-10-10 20:12:10updated72reemap26reemap262013-10-10 20:11:30+00:002013-10-10 20:11:30updated71sydneyb9sydneyb92013-10-10 20:11:17+00:002013-10-10 20:11:17updated70eyang13eyang132013-10-10 14:46:22+00:002013-10-10 14:46:22updated69tcard4tcard42013-10-09 17:55:08+00:002013-10-09 17:55:08updated68leeshahkimLeeshah Kim2013-10-09 12:32:11+00:002013-10-09 12:32:11updated67leeshahkimLeeshah Kim2013-10-09 12:30:49+00:002013-10-09 12:30:49updated66achenachen2013-10-09 04:20:44+00:002013-10-09 04:20:44updated65kristy7kristy72013-10-09 00:27:36+00:002013-10-09 00:27:36updated64kristy7kristy72013-10-09 00:26:41+00:002013-10-09 00:26:41updated63ahakimahakim2013-10-07 03:40:11+00:002013-10-07 03:40:11updated62abarton6abarton62013-10-07 02:19:58+00:002013-10-07 02:19:58updated61edwards9edwards92013-10-07 02:16:24+00:002013-10-07 02:16:24updated60Sexual Coercion linkbennywbennyw2013-10-07 01:04:26+00:002013-10-07 01:04:26updated59Added link and formatting for Traumatic Inseminationbennywbennyw2013-10-07 01:02:54+00:002013-10-07 01:02:54updated58Grammatical errors under selective selection and added bullets to intrasexual selection instead of dashes to match selective selection layout.jnunez26jnunez262013-10-07 00:57:35+00:002013-10-07 00:57:35updated57nikra91nikra912013-10-06 23:55:35+00:002013-10-06 23:55:35updated56Rearranged and made small word revisionslauren91lauren912013-10-06 23:50:04+00:002013-10-06 23:50:04updated55kde04kde042013-10-06 19:44:05+00:002013-10-06 19:44:05updated54xjwork17xjwork172013-10-06 18:49:35+00:002013-10-06 18:49:35updated53Added the link at the bottom describing sexual selection in ducksmanikmanik2013-10-06 18:03:03+00:002013-10-06 18:03:03updated52mbelyakombelyako2013-10-06 01:56:41+00:002013-10-06 01:56:41updated51tvashitvashi2013-10-05 15:04:51+00:002013-10-05 15:04:51updated50samponssampons2013-10-05 06:10:31+00:002013-10-05 06:10:31updated49shree7shree72013-10-04 20:55:34+00:002013-10-04 20:55:34updated48kehoekkehoek2013-10-04 20:51:04+00:002013-10-04 20:51:04updated47ybonillaybonilla2013-10-04 19:52:22+00:002013-10-04 19:52:22updated46gloriaszgloriasz2013-10-04 15:45:14+00:002013-10-04 15:45:14updated45gloriaszgloriasz2013-10-04 15:40:30+00:002013-10-04 15:40:30updated44Organizationddphanddphan2013-10-03 15:13:06+00:002013-10-03 15:13:06updated43Added tag - hotachenachen2013-10-03 15:13:03+00:002013-10-03 15:13:03addTag42achenachen2013-10-02 20:33:06+00:002013-10-02 20:33:06updated41melissa4melissa42013-09-28 07:23:36+00:002013-09-28 07:23:36updated40Added tag - sexual selectionahakimahakim2013-09-26 21:00:24+00:002013-09-26 21:00:24addTag39Removed tag - intersexualahakimahakim2013-09-26 21:00:10+00:002013-09-26 21:00:10removeTag38Added tag - lek matingahakimahakim2013-09-26 20:58:29+00:002013-09-26 20:58:29addTag37Added tag - mating systemsahakimahakim2013-09-26 20:58:15+00:002013-09-26 20:58:15addTag36Added tag - sexual conflictahakimahakim2013-09-26 20:58:03+00:002013-09-26 20:58:03addTag35Added tag - intersexualahakimahakim2013-09-26 20:57:46+00:002013-09-26 20:57:46addTag34Added tag - reproductionahakimahakim2013-09-26 20:57:35+00:002013-09-26 20:57:35addTag33ahakimahakim2013-09-26 20:54:12+00:002013-09-26 20:54:12updated32Added new section on Leksmbelyakombelyako2013-09-26 01:28:39+00:002013-09-26 01:28:39updated31kevinmkkevinmk2013-09-23 13:10:19+00:002013-09-23 13:10:19updated30ebythekkebythekk2013-09-23 00:40:08+00:002013-09-23 00:40:08updated29csharmacsharma2013-09-19 20:26:51+00:002013-09-19 20:26:51updated28mbelyakombelyako2013-09-19 17:21:52+00:002013-09-19 17:21:52updated27mbelyakombelyako2013-09-19 17:18:57+00:002013-09-19 17:18:57updated26Added a new section: reproductive strategiesmbelyakombelyako2013-09-19 17:18:40+00:002013-09-19 17:18:40updated25Added more information on the benefits of asexual reproduction and sexual reproductionmbelyakombelyako2013-09-19 17:11:36+00:002013-09-19 17:11:36updated24ekeatingekeating2013-09-17 20:04:20+00:002013-09-17 20:04:20updated23Added tag - selectionearly312early3122013-09-17 15:05:43+00:002013-09-17 15:05:43addTag22early312early3122013-09-16 16:25:50+00:002013-09-16 16:25:50updated21henkhenk2013-09-16 14:56:31+00:002013-09-16 14:56:31updated20kdv11kdv112013-09-16 12:56:55+00:002013-09-16 12:56:55updated19dragonfly example addedduggan91duggan912013-09-16 05:26:47+00:002013-09-16 05:26:47updated18skanman3skanman32013-09-15 21:27:08+00:002013-09-15 21:27:08updated17rwstrongrwstrong2013-09-15 21:07:40+00:002013-09-15 21:07:40updated16smarte18smarte182013-09-15 21:05:21+00:002013-09-15 21:05:21updated15smarte18smarte182013-09-15 20:55:26+00:002013-09-15 20:55:26updated14corrected spelling and formatted pagejlri228jlri2282013-09-15 20:45:08+00:002013-09-15 20:45:08updated13jlri228jlri2282013-09-15 20:43:20+00:002013-09-15 20:43:20updated12For my second post for the week, I outlined a few types of sexual conflict and embedded youtube videos to explain the corresponding types of sexual conflict jlri228jlri2282013-09-15 20:41:56+00:002013-09-15 20:41:56updated11jlri228jlri2282013-09-15 20:25:03+00:002013-09-15 20:25:03updated10added links to outside sources to further explain sexual conflict jlri228jlri2282013-09-15 20:24:31+00:002013-09-15 20:24:31updated9added a paragraph on sexual conflictjlri228jlri2282013-09-15 20:21:03+00:002013-09-15 20:21:03updated8Added a few words in sexual reproduction to make sense pkyungpkyung2013-09-15 03:53:42+00:002013-09-15 03:53:42updated7Introduced topic of comparing sexual to asexual selectionmbelyakombelyako2013-09-15 03:30:30+00:002013-09-15 03:30:30updated6asian108asian1082013-09-14 03:29:23+00:002013-09-14 03:29:23updated5kevinmkkevinmk2013-09-14 02:04:59+00:002013-09-14 02:04:59updated4bjenk07bjenk072013-09-14 02:02:49+00:002013-09-14 02:02:49updated3naa92naa922013-09-14 01:17:00+00:002013-09-14 01:17:00updated2First creatednaa92naa922013-09-14 01:12:48+00:002013-09-14 01:12:48created1wiki2013-11-25T03:26:27+00:00groups/evol3000/wiki/543e6FalseSexual Selection/Conflict/groups/evol3000/wiki/543e6/Sexual_SelectionConflict.htmlmayabasu224 updatesSexual Selection/Conflict Sexual selection is a mode of selection that operates on an organism's ability to obtain a mate. Sexual selection allows some individuals to out com...Falsemayabasu2013-11-25T03:26:27+00:00Repairing bad index entrymayabasumayabasu2015-01-22 13:55:44+00:002015-01-22 13:55:44updated144Repairing bad index entrymayabasumayabasu2015-01-22 13:28:23+00:002015-01-22 13:28:23updated143mayabasumayabasu2013-11-25 03:23:57+00:002013-11-25 03:23:57updated142Linked "slot limits"rbaskin1rbaskin12013-11-25 03:19:05+00:002013-11-25 03:19:05updated141grammar/syntax and a linkrbaskin1rbaskin12013-11-25 03:16:06+00:002013-11-25 03:16:06updated140Linked hip displacia in caninesrbaskin1rbaskin12013-11-25 03:12:24+00:002013-11-25 03:12:24updated139Added tag - domesticated animalsrachel08rachel082013-11-25 03:09:53+00:002013-11-25 03:09:53addTag138rachel08rachel082013-11-25 02:56:50+00:002013-11-25 02:56:50updated137rachel08rachel082013-11-25 02:53:13+00:002013-11-25 02:53:13updated136eyang13eyang132013-11-22 18:06:03+00:002013-11-22 18:06:03updated135xjwork17xjwork172013-11-21 23:51:06+00:002013-11-21 23:51:06updated134sydneyb9sydneyb92013-11-21 22:26:31+00:002013-11-21 22:26:31updated133improving contentbscurrybscurry2013-11-21 05:40:28+00:002013-11-21 05:40:28updated132xjwork17xjwork172013-11-14 22:08:51+00:002013-11-14 22:08:51updated131tbrownetbrowne2013-11-14 17:23:39+00:002013-11-14 17:23:39updated130dmwilsondmwilson2013-11-14 17:17:14+00:002013-11-14 17:17:14updated129tcard4tcard42013-11-14 03:18:52+00:002013-11-14 03:18:52updated128bjenk07bjenk072013-11-14 02:14:57+00:002013-11-14 02:14:57updated127dmwilsondmwilson2013-11-13 18:53:43+00:002013-11-13 18:53:43updated126tvashitvashi2013-11-13 16:12:56+00:002013-11-13 16:12:56updated125added a pictureksuf615ksuf6152013-11-12 16:14:10+00:002013-11-12 16:14:10updated124lgcarterlgcarter2013-11-12 15:44:28+00:002013-11-12 15:44:28updated123mbrdgmnmbrdgmn2013-11-10 23:25:59+00:002013-11-10 23:25:59updated122xjwork17xjwork172013-11-10 22:40:45+00:002013-11-10 22:40:45updated121samponssampons2013-11-10 22:36:35+00:002013-11-10 22:36:35updated120rachel08rachel082013-11-10 22:32:31+00:002013-11-10 22:32:31updated119re320re3202013-11-10 01:52:26+00:002013-11-10 01:52:26updated118edawg16edawg162013-11-09 23:21:00+00:002013-11-09 23:21:00updated117changed format of text to make information easier to read and interpretedawg16edawg162013-11-09 23:20:27+00:002013-11-09 23:20:27updated116deerandeeran2013-11-09 03:52:40+00:002013-11-09 03:52:40updated115improved wordingbscurrybscurry2013-11-07 23:32:57+00:002013-11-07 23:32:57updated114achenachen2013-11-04 15:54:03+00:002013-11-04 15:54:03updated113ashleyjwashleyjw2013-11-04 04:24:53+00:002013-11-04 04:24:53updated112abarton6abarton62013-11-04 00:00:40+00:002013-11-04 00:00:40updated111alomasalomas2013-11-03 23:41:15+00:002013-11-03 23:41:15updated110kdsouza9kdsouza92013-11-03 23:35:06+00:002013-11-03 23:35:06updated109tvashitvashi2013-11-03 19:17:24+00:002013-11-03 19:17:24updated108achenachen2013-11-01 22:23:27+00:002013-11-01 22:23:27updated107gloriaszgloriasz2013-11-01 02:12:10+00:002013-11-01 02:12:10updated106liishiiliishii2013-11-01 02:02:40+00:002013-11-01 02:02:40updated105liishiiliishii2013-11-01 02:02:37+00:002013-11-01 02:02:37updated104naa92naa922013-10-31 16:46:04+00:002013-10-31 16:46:04updated103mpattmpatt2013-10-31 15:29:45+00:002013-10-31 15:29:45updated102ybonillaybonilla2013-10-31 13:38:40+00:002013-10-31 13:38:40updated101ybonillaybonilla2013-10-31 13:37:04+00:002013-10-31 13:37:04updated100kde04kde042013-10-31 10:45:54+00:002013-10-31 10:45:54updated99kde04kde042013-10-31 10:43:23+00:002013-10-31 10:43:23updated98tabedintabedin2013-10-27 21:51:03+00:002013-10-27 21:51:03updated97dmdauerdmdauer2013-10-21 03:01:21+00:002013-10-21 03:01:21updated96grammarjsafkojsafko2013-10-21 02:58:41+00:002013-10-21 02:58:41updated95edwards9edwards92013-10-21 02:01:36+00:002013-10-21 02:01:36updated94kehoekkehoek2013-10-11 23:24:21+00:002013-10-11 23:24:21updated93casef10casef102013-10-11 22:44:37+00:002013-10-11 22:44:37updated92leeshahkimLeeshah Kim2013-10-11 14:54:41+00:002013-10-11 14:54:41updated91gloriaszgloriasz2013-10-11 14:49:27+00:002013-10-11 14:49:27updated90gloriaszgloriasz2013-10-11 14:47:01+00:002013-10-11 14:47:01updated89added information on farm animals sectionmbelyakombelyako2013-10-10 18:18:28+00:002013-10-10 18:18:28updated88Organization of headersddphanddphan2013-10-10 15:12:14+00:002013-10-10 15:12:14updated87formattingmia2016mia20162013-10-09 17:26:10+00:002013-10-09 17:26:10updated86snoccersnoccer2013-10-09 14:23:28+00:002013-10-09 14:23:28updated85writer44writer442013-10-09 02:43:09+00:002013-10-09 02:43:09updated84cslidecslide2013-10-07 03:06:22+00:002013-10-07 03:06:22updated83nkamnkam2013-10-02 17:35:04+00:002013-10-02 17:35:04updated82nkamnkam2013-10-02 17:34:02+00:002013-10-02 17:34:02updated81nkamnkam2013-10-02 17:32:47+00:002013-10-02 17:32:47updated80made some formatting changesmia2016mia20162013-10-01 20:57:32+00:002013-10-01 20:57:32updated79lcaplanlcaplan2013-10-01 02:54:04+00:002013-10-01 02:54:04updated78kevinmkkevinmk2013-09-30 21:51:42+00:002013-09-30 21:51:42updated77bjenk07bjenk072013-09-30 21:51:19+00:002013-09-30 21:51:19updated76bjenk07bjenk072013-09-30 21:50:08+00:002013-09-30 21:50:08updated75bjenk07bjenk072013-09-30 21:37:01+00:002013-09-30 21:37:01updated74dogs ccranccran2013-09-30 06:47:11+00:002013-09-30 06:47:11updated73added under food sectionginasanginasan2013-09-30 02:49:36+00:002013-09-30 02:49:36updated72cslidecslide2013-09-30 02:04:52+00:002013-09-30 02:04:52updated71grammatical changes jlri228jlri2282013-09-30 01:23:25+00:002013-09-30 01:23:25updated70ybonillaybonilla2013-09-29 23:27:17+00:002013-09-29 23:27:17updated69ybonillaybonilla2013-09-29 23:26:30+00:002013-09-29 23:26:30updated68ybonillaybonilla2013-09-29 23:24:52+00:002013-09-29 23:24:52updated67added info about killer beesbscurrybscurry2013-09-29 19:26:11+00:002013-09-29 19:26:11updated66fgkatzfgkatz2013-09-29 15:09:03+00:002013-09-29 15:09:03updated65kkogantikkoganti2013-09-29 02:17:35+00:002013-09-29 02:17:35updated64shree7shree72013-09-28 22:59:28+00:002013-09-28 22:59:28updated63alomasalomas2013-09-28 01:16:23+00:002013-09-28 01:16:23updated62gloriaszgloriasz2013-09-27 12:14:14+00:002013-09-27 12:14:14updated61added cat photo and bit about hypoallergenic and hairless specieshaliejhaliej2013-09-27 03:32:40+00:002013-09-27 03:32:40updated60edited/ cut/ rephrased *** section about dog inbreedinghaliejhaliej2013-09-27 03:20:10+00:002013-09-27 03:20:10updated59kristy7kristy72013-09-26 23:36:25+00:002013-09-26 23:36:25updated58gloriaszgloriasz2013-09-26 20:51:22+00:002013-09-26 20:51:22updated57rtalleyrtalley2013-09-26 15:57:14+00:002013-09-26 15:57:14updated56Added Examples from classddphanddphan2013-09-26 15:13:29+00:002013-09-26 15:13:29updated55added to dog sectiontcard4tcard42013-09-26 00:44:23+00:002013-09-26 00:44:23updated54achenachen2013-09-26 00:34:28+00:002013-09-26 00:34:28updated53reorganized a little bitlauren91lauren912013-09-24 17:23:33+00:002013-09-24 17:23:33updated52bpcroftbpcroft2013-09-24 13:28:11+00:002013-09-24 13:28:11updated51rwstrongrwstrong2013-09-24 03:19:39+00:002013-09-24 03:19:39updated50rwstrongrwstrong2013-09-24 03:02:24+00:002013-09-24 03:02:24updated49achenachen2013-09-23 22:11:53+00:002013-09-23 22:11:53updated48leeshahkimLeeshah Kim2013-09-23 22:08:58+00:002013-09-23 22:08:58updated47talathitalathi2013-09-23 20:51:07+00:002013-09-23 20:51:07updated46added detail to breeders equationduggan91duggan912013-09-23 15:00:22+00:002013-09-23 15:00:22updated45added link to bbc documentary on selective breeding in dogs jlri228jlri2282013-09-22 23:37:20+00:002013-09-22 23:37:20updated44sgamachesgamache2013-09-22 15:29:06+00:002013-09-22 15:29:06updated43grammarspenc90spenc902013-09-22 15:19:21+00:002013-09-22 15:19:21updated42sgamachesgamache2013-09-22 15:16:21+00:002013-09-22 15:16:21updated41kkogantikkoganti2013-09-22 03:35:05+00:002013-09-22 03:35:05updated40kkogantikkoganti2013-09-22 03:34:06+00:002013-09-22 03:34:06updated39Clarified that before genes were known about farmers still knew that some beneficial traits would be passed on to offspring. Saying that farmers intentionally bred cattle for traits but "unintentially utilized heretiablity" doesn't make senseadwomackadwomack2013-09-22 02:51:33+00:002013-09-22 02:51:33updated38general polishing and added additional informationbscurrybscurry2013-09-22 00:59:56+00:002013-09-22 00:59:56updated37asian108asian1082013-09-21 01:40:14+00:002013-09-21 01:40:14updated36kehoekkehoek2013-09-20 20:49:41+00:002013-09-20 20:49:41updated35added article link about Uga and description from the NY timeshaliejhaliej2013-09-20 20:09:00+00:002013-09-20 20:09:00updated34added bulldog transformation imagehaliejhaliej2013-09-20 20:05:10+00:002013-09-20 20:05:10updated33shaque3shaque32013-09-20 16:31:33+00:002013-09-20 16:31:33updated32alomasalomas2013-09-20 16:04:50+00:002013-09-20 16:04:50updated31henkhenk2013-09-20 14:43:48+00:002013-09-20 14:43:48updated30edited disease heterogeneity, added fox domestication studylauren91lauren912013-09-20 03:32:15+00:002013-09-20 03:32:15updated29kristy7kristy72013-09-20 02:44:56+00:002013-09-20 02:44:56updated28bevinbbevinb2013-09-20 01:15:42+00:002013-09-20 01:15:42updated27gloriaszgloriasz2013-09-20 00:34:06+00:002013-09-20 00:34:06updated26Added to FOODccranccran2013-09-19 21:08:37+00:002013-09-19 21:08:37updated25csharmacsharma2013-09-19 20:28:52+00:002013-09-19 20:28:52updated24added examplespjung24pjung242013-09-19 17:04:39+00:002013-09-19 17:04:39updated23bpcroftbpcroft2013-09-19 15:27:36+00:002013-09-19 15:27:36updated22karlin14karlin142013-09-19 15:16:14+00:002013-09-19 15:16:14updated21karlin14karlin142013-09-19 15:15:06+00:002013-09-19 15:15:06updated20Added Breeder's equationddphanddphan2013-09-19 15:07:05+00:002013-09-19 15:07:05updated19karlin14karlin142013-09-19 15:06:11+00:002013-09-19 15:06:11updated18kncox14kncox142013-09-19 14:23:30+00:002013-09-19 14:23:30updated17eyang13eyang132013-09-19 14:07:15+00:002013-09-19 14:07:15updated16eyang13eyang132013-09-19 13:59:54+00:002013-09-19 13:59:54updated15cass16cass162013-09-18 15:15:30+00:002013-09-18 15:15:30updated14mayabasumayabasu2013-09-18 14:59:37+00:002013-09-18 14:59:37updated13mendyhmendyh2013-09-18 14:33:25+00:002013-09-18 14:33:25updated12added bulldog stuff and fun fact about dog phenotypeslauren91lauren912013-09-18 03:10:55+00:002013-09-18 03:10:55updated11ekeatingekeating2013-09-17 20:00:37+00:002013-09-17 20:00:37updated10added a factmia2016mia20162013-09-17 19:30:50+00:002013-09-17 19:30:50updated9mia2016mia20162013-09-17 19:28:11+00:002013-09-17 19:28:11updated8artificial selection in dogsmattbossmattboss2013-09-17 15:12:03+00:002013-09-17 15:12:03updated7Added tag - selectionddphanddphan2013-09-17 15:06:02+00:002013-09-17 15:06:02addTag6Created Pageddphanddphan2013-09-17 15:02:53+00:002013-09-17 15:02:53updated5Added tag - artificial selectionddphanddphan2013-09-17 14:55:15+00:002013-09-17 14:55:15addTag4Added tag - selective breedingddphanddphan2013-09-17 14:55:09+00:002013-09-17 14:55:09addTag3Added tag - hotddphanddphan2013-09-17 14:55:04+00:002013-09-17 14:55:04addTag2First createdddphanddphan2013-09-17 14:55:00+00:002013-09-17 14:55:00created1wiki2013-11-25T03:23:57+00:00groups/evol3000/wiki/ce8b9FalseSelective Breeding or Artificial Selection/groups/evol3000/wiki/ce8b9/Selective_Breeding_or_Artificial_Selection.htmlmayabasu144 updatesSelective Breeding or Artificial Selection Artificial Selection is a form of selection in which humans actively choose which traits should be passed onto offspring. Humans have used selec...Falsemayabasu2013-11-25T03:23:57+00:00edit 9: formatting to the page... " articles, videos and diagrams section .. also added video about richard dawkinsjlri228jlri2282013-11-24 22:30:49+00:002013-11-24 22:30:49updated27added articlekkogantikkoganti2013-11-24 18:41:25+00:002013-11-24 18:41:25updated26grammarjsafkojsafko2013-10-27 21:18:58+00:002013-10-27 21:18:58updated25jnguyen1jnguyen12013-10-26 04:24:43+00:002013-10-26 04:24:43updated24jnguyen1jnguyen12013-10-26 04:23:32+00:002013-10-26 04:23:32updated23kehoekkehoek2013-10-25 19:56:42+00:002013-10-25 19:56:42updated22achenachen2013-10-24 21:34:03+00:002013-10-24 21:34:03updated21rewording and grammarhaliejhaliej2013-10-24 19:17:33+00:002013-10-24 19:17:33updated20grammar to parasite manipulate paragraphhaliejhaliej2013-10-24 19:16:59+00:002013-10-24 19:16:59updated19kristy7kristy72013-10-24 03:11:46+00:002013-10-24 03:11:46updated18Removed tag - phenotypeksuf615ksuf6152013-10-23 17:57:20+00:002013-10-23 17:57:20removeTag17Added tag - richard dawkinsksuf615ksuf6152013-10-23 17:57:09+00:002013-10-23 17:57:09addTag16Removed tag - dawkinsksuf615ksuf6152013-10-23 17:57:01+00:002013-10-23 17:57:01removeTag15added tags to pageksuf615ksuf6152013-10-22 15:20:17+00:002013-10-22 15:20:17updated14Added tag - dawkinsddphanddphan2013-10-22 15:20:06+00:002013-10-22 15:20:06addTag13Added tag - extended phenotypeddphanddphan2013-10-22 15:19:52+00:002013-10-22 15:19:52addTag12Organizationddphanddphan2013-10-22 15:04:17+00:002013-10-22 15:04:17updated11mayabasumayabasu2013-10-21 00:37:10+00:002013-10-21 00:37:10updated10typos, elaborationkkogantikkoganti2013-10-20 21:11:02+00:002013-10-20 21:11:02updated9added the 2nd and 3rd examples of EP described by Dawkinsjnunez26jnunez262013-10-20 18:20:05+00:002013-10-20 18:20:05updated8minor adjustments to 1st example of EPjnunez26jnunez262013-10-20 18:00:57+00:002013-10-20 18:00:57updated7added a pic of Dawkin's book and 1st example of EP that he describesjnunez26jnunez262013-10-20 17:55:12+00:002013-10-20 17:55:12updated6alomasalomas2013-10-20 14:19:09+00:002013-10-20 14:19:09updated5Created Pageddphanddphan2013-10-19 19:29:00+00:002013-10-19 19:29:00updated4Added tag - hotddphanddphan2013-10-19 19:28:59+00:002013-10-19 19:28:59addTag3Added tag - phenotypeddphanddphan2013-10-19 19:28:58+00:002013-10-19 19:28:58addTag2First createdddphanddphan2013-10-19 19:23:37+00:002013-10-19 19:23:37created1wiki2013-11-24T22:30:49+00:00groups/evol3000/wiki/94a1aFalseExtended Phenotype/groups/evol3000/wiki/94a1a/Extended_Phenotype.htmljlri22827 updatesExtended Phenotype An extended phenotype includes all of the traits that an organism has that can influence its fitness; the extended phenotype can include structures t...Falsejlri2282013-11-24T22:30:49+00:00hot/groups/evol3000/search/index.rss?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcomelist/groups/evol3000/search/?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcomeRecent ChangesRecentChangesListUpdates?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcome0/groups/evol3000/sidebar/RecentChangesListmodifiedDateallRecent ChangesRecentChangesListUpdateswiki/welcomeNo recent changes.reverse5searchlist/groups/evol3000/calendar/Upcoming EventsUpcomingEventsListEvents1Getting events…